I study social intelligence, with a focus on the self, mentalizing, and ethics. Broadly, I take the following approach:

(1) Explain cognitive basis of advanced social abilities, most of which have traditionally been considered the exclusive domain of philosophy due to their perplexing qualities, such as the self, ethics, meaning in life, or common knowledge.

(2) Understand the origins of these phenomena by helping to engineer systems that give rise to them.

I approach these questions by measuring judgments and decision-making, psychophysics (including fixed and mobile eye tracking and VR), and AI models. Theoretically, I also draw inspiration from philosophy, game theory, and evolutionary biology. 

The True Self

Representations of and beliefs about the concept of “a self” vary across cultures, perspectives (first vs. third), and individuals. Yet my collaborators and I have found evidence suggesting that people exhibit a robust, invariant tendency to believe that deep inside every individual there is a “good true self” calling them to behave in a morally virtuous manner. We propose that this belief arises from a general cognitive tendency known as psychological essentialism.

Common Knowledge and Recursive Mentalizing

Most work in psychology has studied the representation of other's beliefs about the world, aka theory of mind. My collaborators and I have investigated how representations of knowledge -- including knowledge that others have about our own beliefs (e.g., you know X, I know that you know X), and common knowledge (you know X, I know that you know X, you know that I know that you know X, ad infinitum) -- affect diverse social phenomena such as the bystander effect and perceptions of charitability. We propose that -- rather than being represented as an explicit, multiply nested proposition -- common knowledge may be a distinctive cognitive state, corresponding to the sense that something is public or "out there". 

Ethics of Autonomous Machines

How do we create complex autonomous systems that have 'ethically acceptable' behavior? The current work considers the case study of autonomous vehicles, since for the first time in history they are a truly autonomous system that is beginning to operate in populated environments. Ethics is relevant to how they should be programmed, regulated, be perceived.

  • De Freitas, J., Anthony, Censi, A., & Alvarez, G. A. Doubting driverless dilemmas. Perspectives on Psychological Science**Review**

  • De Freitas & Cikara. Deliberately prejudiced self-driving cars elicit the most outrage. PsyArXiv.

  • De Freitas, J., Censi, A., Anthony, S. E., Di Lillo, L., & Frazzoli, E. From driverless dilemmas to more practical ethics tests for autonomous vehicles. PsyArXiv.

Origins and Variability of Animate Attention

This work explores the idea that complex behaviors, like animate attention, can be explained by the interaction of a world model (which predicts future states of the world) and an intrinsically-motivated self model (which motivates the agent to spend time predicting parts of the world with certain features). In particular, we find that paying attention to aspects of the environment where one is continuing to learn new information (which we term progress curiosity) is a particularly powerful way to give rise to human-like behaviors like animate attention, without the need for built-in modules or hand-written rules. This work utilizes a 3D, photorealistic environment that we created for measuring artificial and human agents-- either while they wear mobile eye trackers or virtual reality goggles. We also run setups in which the displays are conveyed using real robots. 

  • Kim, K.H. Sano, M., De Freitas, J., Haber, N., & Yamins, D. L. K. (in press). Active world model learning with progress curiosityInternational Conference on Machine Learning  [ICLR workshop submission]

  • Sano M., De Freitas J., Haber N., & Yamins D. L. K. (in press). Learning in social environments with curious neural agents. Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society

  • Kim, K. H., Sano, M., De Freitas, J., Yamins, D. L. K., Haber, N. Towards modeling the variability of human attention. International Conference on Learning Representations Workshop

  • De Freitas, J., Kim, K. H., Haber, N., Conwell, C., Alvarez, G. A., Yamins, D. L. K. Intrinsic curiosity may give rise to animate attention. Under review. 

  • Gan, C., Schwartz, J., Alter, S., Schrimpf, M., Traer, J., De Freitas, J., Bhandwaldar, A., Sano, M., Kim, K. H., Wang, E., Mrowca, D., Lingelbach, M., Curtis, A., Feigelis, K., Haber, N., Gutfreund, D., Cox, D., DiCarlo, J., McDermott, J., Tenenbaum, J., Yamins, D. L. K. ThreeDWorld: A Platform for interactive, multi-modal physical simulation. arxiv. [http://www.threedworld.org/]

The Limit of Self-Representation

This work tries to characterize the limits of self-representation, much as vision scientists have studied the limits of processes like working memory and attention. We do this by focusing both on intuitive psychology, and previous work on the so-called self-reference effect. This previous work finds that visual perceptual learning and memory are enhanced by "self-relevant" material, implying a "self" representation that is associated with visual information, thereby to these performance improvements. Applying an approach from perception science, we ask: is there a limit to this process? That is, can you have multiple "self representations" at once (e.g., "young me, old me"), or can there only be one self? We find that self-representation appears to be severely limited: the mind can only represent one item as the self at a time.  

  • De Freitas, J., Rips, L. J., & Alvarez, G. A. Personal identity, self-reference, and intransitivity. Under review. 

  • De Freitas, J., Rips, L. J., & Alvarez, G. A. The capacity of self-relevant long-term memories. PsyArXiv.

  • De Freitas, J., Rips, L. J., & Alvarez, G. A. The limit of active self-representation. PsyArXiv.

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Bridging Sensory Representations and Social Inference

How does sensory input get transformed into representations that serve full-blown social inference?

  • De Freitas, J., & Alvarez, G. A. (2018). Your visual system provides all the information you need to make moral judgments about generic visual events. Cognition, 178, 133–146. 

  • De Freitas, J., Hafri, A., Alvarez, G. A., Yamins, D. L. K. From pixels to moral judgment: Extracting morally-relevant information in minds and machines. Journal of Vision

  • Tarhan, L., De Freitas, J., Alvarez, G. A., & Konkle, T. Semantic embeddings of verbal descriptions predict action similarity judgments. Journal of Vision

Other Papers